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Complement factor P is a ligand for the natural killer cell–activating receptor NKp46

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Science Immunology  28 Apr 2017:
Vol. 2, Issue 10, eaam9628
DOI: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aam9628

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Inter-innate cooperation

The different branches of the immune system work together like a well-oiled machine, but how this coordination occurs is less well understood. Narni-Mancinelli et al. have found one such mechanism—cross-talk between the alternative complement pathway and natural killer (NK) cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). They report that complement factor P (CFP), a positive regulator of the alternative complement pathway, binds NKp46, which is expressed on subsets of NK cells and ILC1 and ILC3. Patients lacking CFP are more susceptible to Neisseria meningitidis infection, and in mice, this CFP protection was dependent on NKp46 and group 1 ILCs. These data suggest that ILCs and the alternative complement pathway cooperate to fight off bacterial infection.