Research ArticleHUMAN IMMUNOLOGY

CD1a presentation of endogenous antigens by group 2 innate lymphoid cells

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Science Immunology  22 Dec 2017:
Vol. 2, Issue 18, eaan5918
DOI: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aan5918

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A new look at lipid surveillance

Human group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) play roles in maintaining homeostasis and defending against pathogens, but dysregulated ILC2 responses have been linked to asthma and allergic responses. Hardman et al. now use an in vivo human skin challenge model to show that ILC2 express CD1a, which is regulated by TSLP, and that CD1a+ILC2 can present endogenous lipid antigens to CD1a-reactive T cells and induce inflammatory responses. CD1a+ILC2 expressed the phospholipase PLA2G4A, which contributed to CD1a-mediated T cell activation, and this pathway was involved in sensing Staphylococcus aureus–associated skin inflammation. These results provide insight into lipid sensing by skin-resident ILC2 and how this pathway may contribute to atopic skin inflammation and pathogen surveillance.