Research ArticleALLERGY

PPAR-γ promotes type 2 immune responses in allergy and nematode infection

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Science Immunology  10 Mar 2017:
Vol. 2, Issue 9, eaal5196
DOI: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aal5196

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Type 2 immunity on PPAR

Agonists to the anti-inflammatory molecule peroxisome proliferator activated receptor–γ (PPAR-γ) decrease airway inflammation in animal models but have had limited success in clinical trials. Now, Chen et al. examine the contribution of PPAR-γ to T helper type 2 (TH2) immunity, which is critical for both allergy and parasite immune response. Mice that lacked PPAR-γ did not develop allergic pathology and failed to protect against nematode infection. These mice lacked interleukin-5 (IL-5)– and IL-13–secreting cells and had reduced frequencies of TH2 cells in visceral adipose tissue. PPAR-γ agonists up-regulated the IL-33 receptor ST2. Hence, PPAR-γ may contribute to IL-5 and IL-13 production by TH2 cells, which highlights the need for caution in using PPAR-γ agonists for TH2-mediated diseases.