November 2017
Vol 2, Issue 17

About The Cover

Cover image expansion

ONLINE COVER Defending the Wall. A colorized scanning electron microscopic image shows the fungus Candida albicans (purple) transitioning from its commensal yeast phase to a pathogenic hyphal form and invading the underlying oral epithelial cell layer (gold). Verma et al. focused on the role of candidalysin, a fungal toxin produced during hyphal invasion, and found that it stimulates production of epithelial factors that in turn trigger IL-17 production from tissue-protective innate lymphocytes. Candidalysin, rather than hyphal formation and tissue damage, may induce the innate immune response. [CREDIT: BERNHARD HUBE/HKI JENA; COLORIZATION, DONNA STOLZ, UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH]