Research ArticleT CELLS

MicroRNA-146a controls functional plasticity in γδ T cells by targeting NOD1

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Science Immunology  04 May 2018:
Vol. 3, Issue 23, eaao1392
DOI: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aao1392

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Micromanaging NOD1 in T cells

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent an additional layer of regulation between gene transcription and translation of mRNA. Schmolka et al. document miR-146a as being highly expressed in a subset of γδ T cells, CD27 γδ T cells that can coexpress cytokines interleukin-17 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). They report that miR-146a represses expression of IFN-γ in CD27 γδ T cells by targeting nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1), a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that recognizes bacterial peptidoglycan. Deletion of NOD1 impaired production of IFN-γ in CD27 γδ T cells, albeit precisely how NOD1 regulates IFN-γ remains to be seen. The study adds to the increasing appreciation of the noncanonical functions of PRRs.