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Identification and characterization of HIV-specific resident memory CD8+ T cells in human lymphoid tissue

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Science Immunology  01 Jun 2018:
Vol. 3, Issue 24, eaar4526
DOI: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aar4526
  • Fig. 1 CD69 is not coupled to an early immune activation signature in HIV-infected LNs.

    (A) Frequency of CD69 expression on total LN CD8+ T cells from HIV+ and HIV individuals. Red indicates ART, and orange indicates ART+ in the HIV+ scatter plot group. (B) Frequency of CD69 expression on total blood (top) and LN (bottom) CD8+ T cells. Matched samples from one individual are shown in the representative flow cytometry plots. Lines connect matched samples across all individuals in the graph. PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cell. (C) Correlation between the frequency of memory (non-CCR7hi non-CD45RO) CD8+ T cells and CD69 expression on total blood (top) and LN (bottom) CD8+ T cells. Blue, HIV individuals; red, HIV+ ART individuals; orange, HIV+ ART+ individuals. (D) Frequency of CCR7 CD69+ memory CD8+ T cells in HIV (blue) and HIV+ (red, ART; orange, ART+) individuals. (E) Coexpression pattern of Ki-67 and CD69 in/on total LN CD8+ T cells from an HIV individual (left) and an HIV+ ART individual (right) with acute infection (Fiebig V). (F) Frequency of Ki-67−/+ CD69+ CD8+ T cells in LNs from HIV+ individuals with acute infection (n = 7). (G) Expression intensity of CD69, ICOS, Ki-67, and CD38 in multidimensional viSNE space. viSNE plots were derived using 27,576 cells (n = 17 individuals), and the markers are shown in (I). (H) Same viSNE with subpopulations colored using the PhenoGraph implementation of Cytofkit (top). Distribution of CD69 expression over all 14 subpopulations derived using PhenoGraph (bottom). (I) Hierarchical clustering of expression intensity (z score) for all assessed markers within the different subpopulations derived using PhenoGraph. Median and interquartile range (IQR) are shown for all scatter/bar plots. **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001. Conventional (fluorescence) flow cytometry was used for all stains in (A) to (F), and mass cytometry (CyTOF) was used in (G) to (I).

  • Fig. 2 CD69+ CD8+ T cells show TRM characteristics in LTs.

    (A) Frequency of CD69 expression on memory CD8+ T cells (blue) in blood, spleen, IliLNs, MesLNs, and tonsils from HIV individuals. Asterisks denote statistical comparisons versus blood. (B) Frequency of CD69−/+ cells among CCR7+ (TCM) and CCR7 (TEM) CD8+ T cells. Bar plots are based on all individuals in (A). (C) Heat map showing expression frequency (blue, 0%; red, 100%) for the indicated markers among blood, spleen, IliLN, MesLN, and tonsil memory CD8+ T cells. (D) tSNE clustering on blood (red), spleen (orange), IliLN (blue), MesLN (green), and tonsil (black) memory CD8+ T cells. Values for the tSNE analysis are derived from all markers in (C). (E) CD69 expression on CD103+, CXCR5+, CD49a+, CCR5+, CXCR6+, and CD52+ memory CD8+ T cells from MesLNs. (F) Average expression frequency (blue, 0%; red, 100%) for the indicated markers among blood, spleen, IliLN, MesLN, and tonsil CD69 and CD69+ memory CD8+ T cells. Colors denote average frequencies, derived from all individuals in (C). Median and IQR are shown for all scatter/bar plots. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001. Conventional flow cytometry was used for all stains in this figure.

  • Fig. 3 CD69+ CD8+ T cells show functional and transcriptional TRM signatures in LTs.

    (A) RNA-seq heat map showing differentially expressed genes (fold change > 2; P < 0.05) between human MesLN memory CD69 and CD69+ CD8+ T cells. (B) Ingenuity pathway analysis based on all differentially expressed genes (P < 0.05) between CD69 and CD69+ CD8+ T cells in the RNA-seq data set. The top pathways involved in the physiological system development and function arm are shown in the table. (C) Differential expression patterns of TRM- and TCM/EM-related genes between human LN memory CD69 and CD69+ CD8+ T cells (top) and between splenic CD69 and CD69+ CD8+ T cells from P14 TCR transgenic mice (bottom). (D) ATAC-seq volcano plot showing OCRs adjacent to specific genes. Green marks ATAC-seq peaks that are differentially enriched (fold change > 2; P < 0.05) in human hepatic LN memory CD69 and CD69+ CD8+ T cells. (E) ATAC-seq tracks from human LN memory CD69 (red) and CD69+ (blue) CD8+ T cells. (F) Enriched ATAC-seq de novo motifs for CD69+ (left) and CD69 (right) CD8+ T cells. (G) Human memory CD69 and CD69+ CD8+ T cells from spleen, tonsil, and hepatic LNs (n = 2 each) were assessed over time for CD69 expression in the presence or absence of recombinant human interleukin-7 (IL-7). Lines represent means ± SD. Conventional flow cytometry was used for all stains in this figure.

  • Fig. 4 Anatomical distribution of CD69+ CD8+ T cells in LNs and TDL.

    (A) Whole imaged confocal microscopy of MesLN from human (left) and zoomed-in area (middle). Histocytometry gating strategy to identify localization of CD8+ T and B cells in the LNs (right). (B) Identification of B cell follicles (red) and extrafollicular areas (green) in the whole imaged area using histocytometry (left). Middle graph shows absolute numbers of CD69+CD103 and CD69+CD103+ within all imaged extrafollicular (EF) and B cell follicular (F) areas for three imaged LNs. Example of histocytometry imaging showing the distribution of CD8+CD69+ cells within the zoomed-in LN area. (C) Localization in the human body of the thoracic duct. (D) Flow plots of CD69 expression on human TDL and MesLN memory CD8+ T cells from two unmatched individuals. Frequency of CD69+ CD8+ T cells in TDL (n = 7 individuals) and LTs from all individuals (n = 25) in Fig. 2A. (E) Frequency of CD69 expression on blood, inguinal LN (IngLN), MesLN, tonsil, spleen, and TDL memory (non-CD28+ non-CD95) CD8+ T cells from sample-matched rhesus macaques. Each color indicates fluid/tissue from one specific rhesus macaque. Asterisks denote statistical comparisons versus TDL. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001. Conventional flow cytometry was used for all stains in this figure.

  • Fig. 5 Majority of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells show a TRM phenotype in LNs.

    (A) Flow cytometry plots of memory CD8+ T cells showing CD69 expression on matched HIV-tetramer+ cells in blood and LNs (left) and matched HIV-tetramer+ cells in blood and TDL (middle). Frequency of CD69 expression on HIV-tetramer+ cells in blood (n = 13 individuals), ART LNs (n = 4 individuals), ART+ LNs (n = 4 individuals), and TDL (n = 7 individuals) (right). (B) Distribution of LN HIV-tetramer+ (spec) CD69+ CD8+ T cells among the naïve (CD45RO CCR7+), TCM (CD45RO+ CCR7+), TEM (CD45RO+ CCR7), and effector (TEFF; CD45RO CCR7) compartments. (C) CD69 and CD103 expression profiles for blood (blue), LN (red, ART; orange, ART+), and TDL (yellow) HIV-specific CD8+ T cells. (D) Representative flow cytometry plots showing memory CMV-tetramer+ (left) and HIV-tetramer+ (right) CD8+ T cell frequencies in blood (top) and LNs (bottom) from the same individual. (E) Frequency of CD69 and CD103 expression on LN CMV-NV9–specific and HIV-FK10–specific CD8+ T cells in the same individuals with detectable tetramer+ responses to both viruses. Each color represents a matched individual and a matched tetramer+ response. (F) Representative flow cytometry plots showing CD69 expression on perforin+ granzyme B+ HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in LNs (left). Frequency of CD69−/+ cells among perforin+ (n = 20 responses) and granzyme B+ (n = 16 responses) HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in ART+ and ART LNs (right). (G) Flow plots showing CXCR5 and CD69 coexpression on blood, LN, and TDL memory CD8+ T cells in HIV+ individuals (matched for blood and LNs but not for TDL). Frequency of CXCR5 expression on memory CD8+ T cells in blood, LNs (red, ART; orange, ART+), and TDL. (H) Frequency of CD69 expression on blood, LN, and TDL CXCR5+ memory CD8+ T cells in HIV+ individuals. (I) Frequency of CCR7 expression on LN CD69+ CXCR5+ memory CD8+ T cells in HIV+ individuals. Bar plots are based on all individuals in (A). (J) Representative flow cytometry plots showing CXCR5 and CD69 coexpression on blood, LN, and TDL HIV-tetramer+ CD8+ T cells (matched for blood and LNs but not for TDL). (K) Frequency of CD69 expression on blood (n = 18 responses), LN (n = 21 responses), and TDL (n = 10 responses) HIV-specific CXCR5+ CD8+ T cells. (L) Frequency of CCR7 expression on LN (n = 21 responses) HIV-specific CD69+ CXCR5+ CD8+ T cells. (M) Frequency of CD69+ CXCR5+ cells among LN CMV- and HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in individuals with detectable tetramer+ responses to both viruses. Each dot represents a single tetramer+ response in all scatter plots. Each color represents a matched individual and a matched tetramer+ response. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001. Conventional flow cytometry was used for all stains in this figure.

  • Fig. 6 SIV-specific CD8+ T cells develop TRM characteristics over time.

    Representative flow cytometry plots showing CD69 expression on blood (top) and superficial LN (sLN; bottom) SIV-specific (Mamu A*01-Gag-CM9) CD8+ T cells at 13 and 90 days post-infection (dpi; left). Longitudinal dynamics of CD69 (blue) and Ki-67 (red) expression on/in blood, sLN, MesLN, and spleen SIV-CM9 or TL9-specific CD8+ T cells (13 dpi, n = 12; 90 dpi, n = 3). The longitudinal SIV-CM9 or TL9-specific CD8+ T cell response is plotted at each time point as means ± SD. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001. Conventional flow cytometry was used for all stains in this figure.

  • Fig. 7 Elite controllers exhibit high magnitudes of CD69+ HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in LNs.

    (A) Representative flow cytometry plots of memory CD8+ T cells showing CD69 expression on HIV-tetramer+ cells in matched blood and LN samples from an HIV elite controller. (B) Relative distribution of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in blood and LNs from elite controllers (black) and other HIV+ individuals (red, ART; orange, ART+). (C) Magnitude of LN HIV-tetramer+ CD69+ CD8+ T cell responses in elite controllers and other HIV+ individuals (red, ART; orange, ART+). (D) Magnitude of LN HIV-tetramer+ CD69+ CD8+ T cell responses specific for immunodominant HLA-B*5701–restricted and non–HLA-B*5701–restricted epitopes in elite controllers (n = 2). Data points were only included, where both HLA-B*5701+ and HLA-B*5701 tetramers were tested to avoid analysis biases. Each dot represents a single tetramer+ response in all scatter plots. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01. Conventional flow cytometry was used for all stains in this figure.

  • Fig. 8 Distribution of HIV-specific clonotypes between LN and blood.

    (A) scRNA-seq was conducted on CD69+ and CD69 index-sorted HLA-B*2705–restricted and/or HLA-B*5701–restricted Gag-specific CD8+ T cells from LNs of two elite controllers. The heat map (left) illustrates the single-cell gene expression variability of differentially expressed genes (P < 0.01), and violin plots (right) illustrate immune-related genes differentially expressed between CD69+ and CD69 single HIV-specific CD8+ T cells. (B) CDR3 amino acid sequence and percent frequency are shown for each HLA-B*2705–restricted and HLA-B*5701–restricted clonotype. The frequency of CD69 expression for each clonotype was obtained from single-cell index data (right). (C) CD69 expression on LN clonotypes, where higher frequencies of specific clonotypes are present in LNs versus blood (LN > blood; n = 7) or vice versa (LN < blood; n = 7). Bars show means ± SD. (D) Correlation between CD69 expression on LN clonotypes and the distribution of clonotypes between LNs and blood (frequency of a given clonotype in LNs minus the corresponding frequency in blood). Data points were only included, where at least one clonotype was present in both compartments. N/A, not applicable. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01. Conventional flow cytometry was used for all stains in this figure.

Supplementary Materials

  • immunology.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/24/eaar4526/DC1

    Materials and Methods

    Fig. S1. Maturation of and cycling of LN CD8+ T cells.

    Fig. S2. CD69 expression on naïve CD8+ T cells and immune activation profile of CD69 and CD69+ CD8+ T cells in LTs.

    Fig. S3. Phenotypic characteristics of memory CD8+ T cells in blood and LTs.

    Fig. S4. Residency characteristics of CD69 and CD69+ CD8+ T cells.

    Fig. S5. RNA-seq, ATAC-seq, and CCR7 analysis of LN TRMs.

    Fig. S6. Imaging analysis and CD103 expression in TDL.

    Fig. S7. Bulk and HIV-specific analysis and rhesus gating strategy.

    Fig. S8. Index sorting strategy and scRNA-seq analysis.

    Fig. S9. scRNA-seq analysis of LN HIV-specific CD8+ T cells.

    Table S1. Cohort characteristics.

    Table S2. List of significant genes up-regulated/down-regulated from RNA-seq.

    Table S3. List of significant ATAC-seq tracks.

    Table S4. List of top 200 significant genes up-regulated/down-regulated from scRNA-seq.

  • Supplementary Materials

    Supplementary Material for:

    Identification and characterization of HIV-specific resident memory CD8+ T cells in human lymphoid tissue

    Marcus Buggert,* Son Nguyen, Gonzalo Salgado-Montes de Oca, Bertram Bengsch, Samuel Darko, Amy Ransier, Emily R. Roberts, Daniel del Alcazar, Irene Bukh Brody, Laura A. Vella, Lalit Beura, Sathi Wijeyesinghe, Ramin S. Herati, Perla M. Del Rio Estrada, Yuria Ablanedo-Terrazas, Leticia Kuri-Cervantes, Alberto Sada Japp, Sasikanth Manne, Shant Vartanian, Austin Huffman, Johan K. Sandberg, Emma Gostick, Gregory Nadolski, Guido Silvestri, David H. Canaday, David A. Price, Constantinos Petrovas, Laura F. Su, Golnaz Vahedi, Yoav Dori, Ian Frank, Maxim G. Itkin, E. John Wherry, Steven G. Deeks, Ali Naji, Gustavo Reyes-Terán, David Masopust, Daniel C. Douek, Michael R. Betts*

    *Corresponding authors. Email: betts{at}pennmedicine.upenn.edu (M.R.B.); marcus.buggert{at}ki.se (M.B.)

    Published 1 June 2018, Sci. Immunol. 3, eaar4526 (2017)
    DOI: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aar4526

    This PDF file includes:

    • Materials and Methods
    • Fig. S1. Maturation of and cycling of LN CD8+ T cells.
    • Fig. S2. CD69 expression on naïve CD8+ T cells and immune activation profile of CD69 and CD69+ CD8+ T cells in LTs.
    • Fig. S3. Phenotypic characteristics of memory CD8+ T cells in blood and LTs.
    • Fig. S4. Residency characteristics of CD69 and CD69+ CD8+ T cells.
    • Fig. S5. RNA-seq, ATAC-seq, and CCR7 analysis of LN TRMs.
    • Fig. S6. Imaging analysis and CD103 expression in TDL.
    • Fig. S7. Bulk and HIV-specific analysis and rhesus gating strategy.
    • Fig. S8. Index sorting strategy and scRNA-seq analysis.
    • Fig. S9. scRNA-seq analysis of LN HIV-specific CD8+ T cells.
    • Table S1. Cohort characteristics.
    • Table S2. List of significant genes up-regulated/down-regulated from RNA-seq.
    • Table S3. List of significant ATAC-seq tracks.
    • Table S4. List of top 200 significant genes up-regulated/down-regulated from scRNA-seq.

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