Research ArticleASTHMA

Neutrophil cytoplasts induce TH17 differentiation and skew inflammation toward neutrophilia in severe asthma

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Science Immunology  03 Aug 2018:
Vol. 3, Issue 26, eaao4747
DOI: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aao4747

Nefarious neutrophil cytoplasts

In addition to DNA release, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation can result in enucleated cells called cytoplasts. Krishnamoorthy et al. examined how neutrophil cytoplasts contribute to asthmatic inflammation in mouse models of allergic lung inflammation and in asthmatic patients. Airway exposure of mice to LPS with house dust mite allergen induced NET formation in the lung that was associated with IL-17 production upon subsequent exposure to allergen. Cytoplasts and not neutrophil DNA released in NETosis triggered neutrophilia upon allergen exposure, and cytoplasts alone were sufficient to induce IL-17 production by antigen-specific T cells. Cytoplasts also correlated with IL-17 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from severe asthmatics. These findings provide insight into how neutrophil cytoplasts can contribute to asthma severity.

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