Research ArticleTUMOR IMMUNOLOGY

Tumor-infiltrating human CD4+ regulatory T cells display a distinct TCR repertoire and exhibit tumor and neoantigen reactivity

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Science Immunology  11 Jan 2019:
Vol. 4, Issue 31, eaao4310
DOI: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aao4310

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Neoantigen reactivity

Elevated frequencies of intratumoral CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells have typically been associated with more rapid tumor progression, but the antigen specificity of these Treg cells within tumors is not well understood. Here, Ahmadzadeh et al. characterized the TCR repertoire of intratumoral Treg cells from patients with metastatic melanoma, gastrointestinal, and ovarian cancers. These Treg cells had a unique TCR repertoire different from other intratumoral CD4+ T cells, and dominant TCRs were specific to tumor/neoantigens. These tumor/neoantigen-specific Treg cells were also found in the periphery, indicating that these Treg cells may be expanding from both compartments. Together, these data provide insight into the tumor specificity of Treg cells and how they have the potential to be activated and expand within tumors.