Research ArticleASTHMA

Neutrophils restrain allergic airway inflammation by limiting ILC2 function and monocyte–dendritic cell antigen presentation

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Science Immunology  08 Nov 2019:
Vol. 4, Issue 41, eaax7006
DOI: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aax7006

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Neutrophils keep the peace

Allergic airway inflammation is a complex disease, and multiple immune and nonimmune contribute to development and progression. Here, using a house dust mite–induced mouse model of allergic inflammation, Patel et al. report that depletion of neutrophils worsens airway inflammation. Neutrophil depletion, as expected, led to enhanced myelopoiesis that was driven by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). By carrying out experiments to understand how neutrophil depletion and systemic increase in G-CSF levels drive airway inflammation, the authors have uncovered a previously unsuspected link between G-CSF and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). They report that G-CSF acts directly on both human and mouse ILC2s to promote production of TH2 cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IL-13.

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