Research ArticleCORONAVIRUS

Natural killer cell immunotypes related to COVID-19 disease severity

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Science Immunology  21 Aug 2020:
Vol. 5, Issue 50, eabd6832
DOI: 10.1126/sciimmunol.abd6832

Activated NK cells in severe COVID-19

Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that provide innate immune defense against viral infections and cancer, but little is known about their involvement in the host response to COVID-19. Maucourant et al. used high-dimensional flow cytometry to characterize NK cells in patients with moderate or severe COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with fewer blood NK cells but a higher activation state in circulating NK cells. Severe COVID-19 resulted in an increase in “armed” NK cells containing high levels of cytotoxic proteins such as perforin. The adaptive NK subset was markedly expanded in a subset of severe patients. These findings lay the groundwork for future studies examining the mechanisms of NK cell activation in COVID-19 and their potential roles in host protection and immunopathology.

Abstract

Understanding innate immune responses in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is important to decipher mechanisms of host responses and interpret disease pathogenesis. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate effector lymphocytes that respond to acute viral infections but might also contribute to immunopathology. Using 28-color flow cytometry, we here reveal strong NK cell activation across distinct subsets in peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients. This pattern was mirrored in single-cell RNA sequencing signatures of NK cells in bronchoalveolar lavage from COVID-19 patients. Unsupervised high-dimensional analysis of peripheral blood NK cells furthermore identified distinct NK cell immunotypes that were linked to disease severity. Hallmarks of these immunotypes were high expression of perforin, NKG2C, and Ksp37, reflecting increased presence of adaptive NK cells in circulation of patients with severe disease. Last, arming of CD56bright NK cells was observed across COVID-19 disease states, driven by a defined protein-protein interaction network of inflammatory soluble factors. This study provides a detailed map of the NK cell activation landscape in COVID-19 disease.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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