Research ArticleASTHMA

Steroid-resistant human inflammatory ILC2s are marked by CD45RO and elevated in type 2 respiratory diseases

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Science Immunology  29 Jan 2021:
Vol. 6, Issue 55, eabd3489
DOI: 10.1126/sciimmunol.abd3489

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Defiant ILC2s resist steroids

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) contribute to the inflammation associated with human allergic airway diseases, including asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis. Corticosteroid drugs are used to manage type 2 respiratory diseases, but steroid resistance may arise in the course of therapy. By comparing ILC2s from inflamed nasal polyps with blood ILC2s from healthy controls, van der Ploeg et al. observed that enhanced cytokine expression by nasal polyp ILC2s and loss of steroid responsiveness were both associated with ILC2s becoming CD45RO+ rather than CD45RA+ like most resting ILC2s. Expression of the CD45RO isoform by inflammatory ILC2s in blood was increased in patients with asthma and correlated with more severe airway disease. CD45RO is a candidate biomarker for human inflammatory ILC2s that correlates with acquisition of steroid resistance.

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