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Inflammatory profiles across the spectrum of disease reveal a distinct role for GM-CSF in severe COVID-19

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Science Immunology  10 Mar 2021:
Vol. 6, Issue 57, eabg9873
DOI: 10.1126/sciimmunol.abg9873

Article Information

vol. 6 no. 57

Published By: 
  • Received February 8, 2021
  • Accepted March 5, 2021
  • .

Author Information

  1. Ryan S Thwaites1,
  2. Ashley Sanchez Sevilla Uruchurtu1,
  3. Matthew K Siggins1,
  4. Felicity Liew1,
  5. Clark D Russell2,
  6. Shona C Moore3,
  7. Cameron Fairfield4,
  8. Edwin Carter5,
  9. Simon Abrams3,
  10. Charlotte-Eve Short6,
  11. Thilipan Thaventhiran6,
  12. Emma Bergstrom6,
  13. Zoe Gardener6,
  14. Stephanie Ascough6,
  15. Christopher Chiu6,
  16. Annemarie B Docherty4,7,
  17. David Hunt8,
  18. Yanick J Crow5,
  19. Tom Solomon3,
  20. Graham P Taylor6,
  21. Lance Turtle3,9,
  22. Ewen M Harrison4,
  23. Jake Dunning10,
  24. Malcolm G Semple11,12,*,
  25. J Kenneth Baillie7,13,*,
  26. Peter JM Openshaw1,*,
  27. on behalf of the ISARIC4C investigators**
  1. 1National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, U.K.
  2. 2University of Edinburgh Centre for Inflammation Research, Edinburgh, U.K.
  3. 3Dept of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Liverpool, U.K.
  4. 4Centre for Medical Informatics, Usher Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, U.K.
  5. 5Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, U.K.
  6. 6Department of Infectious Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, U.K.
  7. 7Intensive Care Unit, Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, Edinburgh, U.K.
  8. 8Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, U.K.
  9. 9Tropical and infectious disease unit, Liverpool University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (member of Liverpool Health Partners), U.K.
  10. 10National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, UK
  11. 11NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections, Institute of Infection, Veterinary and Ecological Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, U.K.
  12. 12Respiratory Medicine, Alder Hey Children’s Hospital, Liverpool, U.K.
  13. 13Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, U.K.
  1. *joint corresponding authors. Email: M.G.Semple{at}; j.k.baillie{at}; p.openshaw{at}
    • ** ISARIC4C authors are listed in the supplementary material.


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    Apr 20211086205996

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