Science Immunology

Supplementary Materials

Supplementary Material for:

Inhibition of HDAC8 and HDAC9 by microbial short-chain fatty acids breaks immune tolerance of the epidermis to TLR ligands

James A. Sanford, Ling-Juan Zhang, Michael R. Williams, Jon A. Gangoiti, Chun-Ming Huang, Richard L. Gallo*

*Corresponding author. Email: rgallo{at}

Published 28 October 2016, Sci. Immunol. 1, eaah4609 (2016)
DOI: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aah4609

This PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Chemical HDAC inhibition increases keratinocyte cytokine response to TLR activation.
  • Fig. S2. Negative regulatory NuRD complex is not induced in keratinocytes by butyrate.
  • Fig. S3. HDAC expression in human epidermal keratinocytes and sebocytes.
  • Fig. S4. Knockdown of HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3 does not increase keratinocyte cytokine response to TLR2/6 activation.
  • Fig. S5. Quantification of histone acetylation in human epidermal keratinocytes.
  • Fig. S6. SCFAs do not increase TLR-mediated cytokine expression in keratinocytes by activation of free fatty acid receptors or NF-κB, p38, or JNK
  • Unmodified Western blots
  • Isotype staining controls for immunohistochemistry

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Table S1 (Microsoft excel format). Source data and statistics for all figures.

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