Science Immunology

Supplementary Materials

Supplementary Material for:

Microbial antigen encounter during a preweaning interval is critical for tolerance to gut bacteria

Kathryn A. Knoop, Jenny K. Gustafsson, Keely G. McDonald, Devesha H. Kulkarni, Paige E. Coughlin, Stephanie McCrate, Dongyeon Kim, Chyi-Song Hsieh, Simon P. Hogan, Charles O. Elson, Phillip I. Tarr, Rodney D. Newberry*

*Corresponding author. Email: rnewberry{at}

Published 15 December 2017, Sci. Immunol. 2, eaao1314 (2017)
DOI: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aao1314

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  • Materials and Methods
  • Fig. S1. Representative flow cytometry plots related to Fig. 1.
  • Fig. S2. CBir1 epitope–producing bacteria and B. vulgatus in the small intestinal and colonic contents by DOL.
  • Fig. S3. M cells are not present on the non–follicle-bearing epithelium in the colon in early life.
  • Fig. S4. The extension of TEDs by LP-MNPs is rare in the intestine of preweaning mice.
  • Fig. S5. GAP manipulations in early life do not affect antigen-presenting capacity of colonic LP-MNPs.
  • Fig. S6. Immunofluorescence staining reveals that dextran-containing epithelial cells express the GC marker cytokeratin.
  • Fig. S7. EGF inhibits colonic GAPs in the postneonatal phase of life in a GC intrinsic manner.
  • Fig. S8. Inhibition of GAPs in the postneonatal phase of life abrogates T cell responses to gut bacteria.
  • Fig. S9. EGFR inhibition after weaning, to inappropriately induce colonic GAPs, but not in the postneonatal phase, when GAPs are present, results in inflammatory cytokine production in the colon-draining MLNs but does not induce overt pathologic changes.
Fig. S10. Worsened DSS colitis and inflammatory responses to commensal
  • bacteria when encounters with microbial antigens are altered in early life.
  • References (75–77).
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