Table 1 Summary of pregnancy outcomes, cytokines, and prostaglandins in pregnant NHPs.

The primary outcomes are shown as number (%). AF cytokines and prostaglandins are shown as mean peak (SEM) and are expressed as nanograms per milliliter. Fetal plasma cytokines are levels taken at the time of delivery (GBS) or peak (saline controls) and are expressed as picograms per milliliter. In this category, saline controls represent n = 3. Barnard’s or χ2 test was used to compare adverse outcomes, preterm labor, and MIAC. AF cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) and prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGF) were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to allow for adjustment of each animal’s baseline value. Statistical analyses were conducted using Intercooled STATA 8.2 for Windows 2000 (StataCorp) or SciStatCalc, and P values of <0.05 are indicated in bold. NS, P > 0.2.

(n = 5)
(n = 5)
(n = 5)
P(saline versus
P(GBSΔcovR versus
P(saline versus
Primary and composite outcomes
Adverse outcomes*0 (0%)5 (100%)2 (40%)0.00090.030.1
Preterm labor†0 (0%)4 (80%)1 (20%)0.0020.01NS
MIAC and fetal sepsis0 (0%)3 (60%)1 (20%)0.030.16NS
Peak AF cytokines and prostaglandins
IL-1β0.005 (0.003)5.1 (3.1)0.5 (0.4)0.009NS0.02
TNF-α0.019 (0.01)2.0 (1.2)0.07 (0.04)0.0290.15NS
IL-610.71 (2.2)22.7 (1.5)6.2 (4.3)0.0170.049NS
IL-81.45 (0.3)15.7 (4.2)5.3 (2.3)<0.0010.0320.03
PGE20.72 (0.4)4.5 (4.1)0.7 (0.3)NSNSNS
PGF0.78 (0.2)98.5 (98.0)0.3 (0.1)NSNS0.05
Fetal cytokines‡
IL-1β0.6 (0)42.31 (23.2)13.63 (5.9)0.008NS0.001
TNF-α1.21 (0.31)7.7 (0.8)8.30 (0.4)<0.001NS<0.001
IL-61.73 (0.37)675.34 (413.0)88.59 (73.9)0.0190.16NS
IL-8309.54 (83.32)4721.72 (1745.0)1828.41 (1039.3)0.0020.06NS

*Adverse outcomes represent preterm labor or increase in uterine contraction and MIAC.

†Preterm labor was defined as a progressive increase in uterine contraction accompanied by cervical change.

‡In two saline controls, fetal blood could not be obtained, but there was no detectable AF inflammation and fetal lung histology was normal.