Table 1 Characteristics of the patients.

Obesity is defined as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2; morbid obesity is defined as body mass index ≥ 40 kg/m2.

All patients (N = 19)Supplemental oxygen (N = 11)Mechanical ventilation (N = 8)
Male sex – no. of patients (%)13 (68%)6 (55%)7 (88%)
Age – median (range) (years)61 (45–84)62 (48–84)61 (45–77)
Ethnicity
  White9 (47%)6 (55%)3 (38%)
  Hispanic5 (26%)2 (18%)3 (38%)
  Black3 (16%)2 (18%)1 (13%)
  Asian1 (5%)01 (13%)
  Middle Eastern1 (5%)1 (9%)0
Days of symptoms – median (range)7 (2–21)9 (2–21)7 (3–21)
Days of treatment – median (range)10 (4–14)10 (4–14)10 (6–14)
Required intubation after
treatment – no. of patients (%)
2 (18%)
Days on ventilator before
treatment – median (range)
1.5 (1 to 22)
Extubated after treatment – no. of
patients (%)
4 (50%)
Comorbid conditions
Hypertension16 (84%)9 (82%)7 (88%)
Obesity13 (68%)8 (73%)5 (63%)
  Morbid obesity5 (26%)3 (27%)2 (25%)
Diabetes mellitus7 (37%)3 (27%)4 (50%)
Obstructive sleep apnea3 (16%)2 (18%)1 (13%)
Chronic kidney disease2 (11%)1 (9%)1 (13%)
Coronary artery disease1 (5%)1 (9%)0
Chronic obstructive lung disease1 (5%)1 (9%)0
Asthma1 (5%)1 (9%)0
Sarcoidosis1 (5%)01 (13%)
Rheumatoid arthritis1 (5%)1 (9%)0
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia1 (5%)1 (9%)0
Prostate cancer1 (5%)1 (9%)0
Signs and symptoms
Cough15 (79%)8 (73%)7 (88%)
Dyspnea14 (74%)10 (91%)4 (50%)
Fever12 (63%7 (64%)5 (63%)
Myalgias/muscle weakness6 (32%)3 (27%)3 (38%)
Diarrhea2 (11%)02 (25%)
Vomiting1 (5%)01 (13%)
Sore throat1 (5%)1 (9%)0
Loss of taste1 (5%)1 (9%)0
Laboratory values
ALC (cells/μl)
  ≤100015 (83%)8 (80%)7 (88%)
  >10003 (17%)2 (20%)1 (12%)
  *Not applicable11
CRP (mg/dl)
≥1015 (79%)7 (64%)8 (100%)
  >3 and <104 (21%)4 (36%)
  <30
Serum ferritin (ng/ml)
  ≥50016 (84%)8 (73%)8 (100%)
  <5003 (16%)3 (27%)
Fibrinogen (mg/dl)
  ≥40010 (100%)6 (100%)4 (100%)
  <4000
  Unknown954
D-dimer (mcg/ml)
  ≥0.515 (88%)8 (80%)7 (100%)
  <0.52 (12%)2 (20%)
  Unknown211
IL-6 levels (pg/ml)
  ≥159 (100%)6 (100%)3 (100%)
  <150
  Unknown1055

*One patient had preexisting chronic lymphocytic leukemia making the lymphocyte count uninterpretable.