Table 1 Clinical characteristics.

Data are listed as median (IQR)m, where m is the number of missing data points, n (%), or n/N (%), where N is the total number with available data. Representative participants from each severity cohort were used in cross-sectional or longitudinal analysis.

All patients (49)Mild (18)Moderate (21)Severe (10)
Age61 (51–71)61.5 (45–72.5)59 (51–68)66 (52–72.5)
Sex
  Male31 (63.3%)11 (61.1%)13 (62%)7 (70%)
  Female18 (36.7%)7 (38.9%)8 (38%)3 (30%)
Body mass index27.5 (24.9–30)427.1 (23.6–30)128.3 (25.7–30)226.5 (24.9–30.4)1
Comorbidity
  Diabetes8/49 (16.3%)3/18 (16.7%)2/21 (9.5%)3/10 (30%)
  Ischemic heart disease5/49 (10.2%)2/18 (11.1%)1/21 (4.8%)2/10 (20%)
  Hypertension14/49 (28.6%)5/18 (27.8%)7/21 (33.3%)2/10 (20%)
  Chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease
9/49 (18.4%)4/18 (22.2%)4/21 (19.1%)1/10 (10%)
  Asthma5/49 (10.2%)2/18 (11.1%)3/21 (14.3%)0/10 (0%)
  Malignancy3/49 (6.1%)0/18 (0%)1/21 (4.8%)2/10 (20%)
Presentation
  Illness onset to admission
(days)
7 (4–10)47 (4–8)17.5 (2.8–10.8)35.5 (4–9.5)
  Dyspnea29/41 (70.7%)8/16 (50%)14/16 (87.5%)7/9 (77.8%)
  Cough30/41 (73.2%)11/16 (68.8%)12/16 (75%)7/9 (77.8%)
  Fever28/41 (68.3%)10/16 (62.5%)9/16 (56.3%)9/9 (100%)
  Diarrhea/vomiting14/41 (34.2%)3/16 (18.8%)7/16 (43.8%)4/9 (44.4%)
  Myalgia10/40 (25%)4/15 (26.7%)3/16 (18.8%)3/9 (33.3%)
  Fatigue10/38 (26.3%)3/14 (21.4%)5/15 (33.3%)2/9 (22.2%)
  Day recruited2 (2–3)3 (2–4.5)2 (2–3)2 (2–3)
  Number of time points2 (1–4)2 (1–2)3 (2–3)4.5 (2–5)
  Respiratory rate*20 (18–25)1020 (17–24)521 (18–26)321.5 (17.8–24)2
  Temperature*37.5 (36.9–38.4)1037.1 (36.5–37.4)537.7 (37.1–38.8)338 (37.7–39.2)2
  Systolic blood pressure*125 (117–136)10122 (117–126)5126 (118–136)3137.5 (114.5–156.3)2
Chest radiograph findings
  Bilateral opacification41/47 (87.2%)11/16 (68.8%)20/21 (95.2%)10/10 (100%)
  Unilateral opacification3/47 (6.4%)2/16 (12.5%)1/21 (4.8%)0/10 (0%)
  No abnormality3/47 (6.4%)3/16 (18.8%)0/21 (0%)0/10 (0%)
COVID nasopharyngeal test
  Positive42 (86%)15 (83.3%)18 (85.7%)9 (90%)
  Negative7 (14%)3 (16.7%)3 (14.3%)1 (10%)
Differential full blood count at admission
  White blood cell count (×109/
liter)
6.9 (5.7–9.8)6.7 (4.7–7.5)7.1 (6.3–10)7.3 (5.7–10)
  Lymphocytes (×109/liter)1.1 (0.8–1.4)1.2 (0.8–1.3)1.3 (0.8–1.5)0.9 (0.8–1.1)
  Neutrophils (×109/liter)5.1 (3.8–7.4)4.7 (3.2–5.7)5.3 (4.5–7.7)6.3 (4.2–8.6)
  Monocytes (×109/liter)0.4 (0.2–0.7)0.4 (0.2–0.6)0.5 (0.3–0.7)0.3 (0.2–0.5)
  Platelets (×109/liter)244 (188–367)2241 (188–316)2269 (195–366)204 (155–412)
Highest acute-phase response/liver function tests
  CRP (mg/liter)127 (75–226)88 (38–166)120 (75–201)269 (244–296)
  Alanine aminotransferase (U/
liter)
48 (27–87)1657 (28–75)935 (25–79)549 (37–105)2
  Alkaline phosphatase (U/liter)78 (63–96)1679 (63–82)972 (63–90)5110 (71–172)2
  Bilirubin (μM)11 (7–15)1610 (8–14)99 (7–13)513 (10–21)2
Complications
  Pulmonary embolism5/49 (10.2%)1/18 (5.6%)4/21 (19.1%)0/10 (0%)
  Acute kidney injury3/49 (6.1%)0/18 (0%)2/21 (9.5%)1/10 (10%)
  Mortality6/49 (12.2%)1/18 (5.6%)0/21 (0%)5/10 (50%)

*Admission observations.