Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the cohorts.

COVID-19, participants with SARS-CoV-2 infection; CS, cross-sectional; IPS, Immunity in Pneumonia and Sepsis; LT, longitudinal.

COVID (n = 134)EDFLU (n = 54)IPS (n = 22)Yale, LT cohort (n = 23)Yale, CS cohort
(n = 49)
Demographics
Age in years, mean ± SD63 ± 1653 ± 1754 ± 1765 ± 1263 ± 17
Gender
Female41% (55)50% (27)50% (11)39% (9)33% (16)
Male59% (79)50% (27)50% (11)61% (14)67% (33)
Ethnicity
Black or African-
American
79.1% (106)54.5% (12)26% (6)24.5% (12)
White19.4% (26)40.9% (9)52% (12)51% (25)
Other1.5% (2)4.5% (1)21% (5)*24.5% (12)*
Clinical characteristics
Hospital admission92.5% (124)96.3% (52)100.0% (22)100% (23)100% (49)
ICU admission53.7% (72)24.1% (13)100.0% (22)61% (14)82% (40)
IMV21.6% (29)11.1% (6)100.0% (22)9% (2)53% (26)
In-hospital mortality22.4% (30)3.7% (2)36.4% (8)30% (7)24.5 (12)
Comorbidities
Smoking history46.3% (62)63.6% (14)65% (15)8% (4)
Chronic lung disease19.4% (26)22.2% (12)13.6% (3)35% (8)10% (5)
End-stage renal disease
(ESRD)
6% (8)7.4% (4)4.5% (1)4% (1)4% (2)
Diabetes mellitus, type 252.2% (70)35.2% (19)18.2% (4)39% (9)27% (13)

*Hispanic/Latino, Asian, and unknown.

†Current or former smoker. Smoking history was unavailable for the EDFLU cohort.

‡Based on chronic dialysis requirement.